Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
Overview[ edit ] PAR has multiple progenitors and resists definition. It is a broad tradition of collective self-experimentation backed up by evidential reasoning, fact-finding and learning. All formulations of PAR have in common the idea that research and action must be done 'with' people and not 'on' or 'for' people.
Inquiry based on PAR principles makes sense of the world through collective efforts to transform it, as opposed to simply observing and studying human behaviour and people's views about reality, in the hope that meaningful change will eventually emerge.
PAR draws on a wide range of influences, both among those with professional training and those who draw on their life experience and those of their ancestors. Many draw on the work of Paulo Freire new thinking on adult education research,  the Civil Rights Movement South Asian social movements such as the Bhoomi Sena,   and key initiatives such as the Participatory Research Network created in and based in New Delhi.
His recommendations to researchers committed to the struggle for justice and greater democracy in all spheres, including the business of science, are useful for all researchers and echo the teaching from many schools of research: Do not trust elitist versions of history and science which respond to dominant interests, but be receptive to counter-narratives and try to recapture them.
Do not depend solely on your culture to interpret facts, but steps writing action research paper local values, traits, beliefs, and arts for action by and with the research organisations. Do not impose your own ponderous scientific style for communicating results, but diffuse and share what you have learned together with the people, in a manner that is wholly understandable and even literary and pleasant, for science should not be necessarily a mystery nor a monopoly of experts and intellectuals.
However alternative traditions of PAR, begin with processes that include more bottom-up organising and popular education than were envisaged by Lewin.
PAR strategies to democratize knowledge making and ground it in real community needs and learning[ clarification needed What are these strategies? These principles and the ongoing evolution of PAR have had a lasting legacy in fields ranging from problem solving in the workplace to community development and sustainable livelihoods, education, public health, feminist research and civic engagement.
It is important to note that these contributions are subject to many tensions and debates on key issues such as the role of clinical psychology, critical social thinking and the pragmatic concerns of organizational learning in PAR theory and practice.
Labels used to define each approach PAR, critical PAR, action research, psychosociology, sociotechnical analysis, etc. While a common denominator, the combination of participation, action and research reflects the fragile unity of traditions whose diverse ideological and organizational contexts kept them separate and largely ignorant of one another for several decades.
Closely related approaches that overlap but do not bring the three components together are left out. Applied researchfor instance, is not necessarily committed to participatory principles and may be initiated and controlled mostly by experts, with the implication that 'human subjects' are not invited to play a key role in science building and the framing of the research questions.
As in mainstream science, this process "regards people as sources of information, as having bits of isolated knowledge, but they are neither expected nor apparently assumed able to analyze a given social reality".
PAR, in contrast, has evolved from the work of activists more concerned with empowering marginalized peoples than with generating academic knowledge for its own sake.
Lewin's seminal contribution involves a flexible, scientific approach to planned change that proceeds through a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of 'a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action', towards an organizational 'climate' of democratic leadership and responsible participation that promotes critical self-inquiry and collaborative work.
An important offshoot of Tavistock thinking and practise is the sociotechnical systems perspective on workplace dynamics, guided by the idea that greater productivity or efficiency does not hinge on improved technology alone.
Improvements in organizational life call instead for the interaction and 'joint optimization' of the social and technical components of workplace activity. In this perspective, the best match between the social and technical factors of organized work lies in principles of 'responsible group autonomy' and industrial democracyas opposed to deskilling and top-down bureaucracy guided by Taylor 's scientific management and linear chain of command.
Process consultation, team building, conflict management, and workplace group democracy and autonomy have become recurrent themes in the prolific body of literature and practice known as organizational development OD. On the whole, however, science tends to be a means, not an end.Before starting the steps, be sure you have enough note paper, various colors of highlighters (for your research markings) and index cards.
Also take note, that reading the checklist regarding research ethics could also be of big help for you and writing your research paper.
Steps in Writing an Action Research Paper If you are wondering what an action research is, and how to write it, most probably you major in Sociology or Psychology, because this term has evolved from social studies rather recently (in the first half of XX century).
Taking informed action, or “action planning,” the last step in the action research process, is very familiar to most teachers. When teachers write lesson plans or develop academic programs, they are engaged in the action planning process. Research the topic. This step is especially important if your paper is a research paper.
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The Action Research Project is intended to be a professional manuscript that reflects scholarly work and effort. It should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (DIN A4 – 21x cm). Ample margin should be left for comment.