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Influence[ edit ] Sir Philip Sidney's influence can be seen throughout the subsequent history of English literary criticism. One of the most important examples is in the work of the poet and critic Percy Bysshe Shelley. Shelley's modern argument for poetry is cast in a Romantic strain in his critical work titled A Defence of Poetry.
InWilliam Stigant a Cambridge-educated translator, poet and essayist, writes in his essay "Sir Philip Sidney"  that Shelley's "beautifully written Defence of Poetry is a work which "analyses the very inner essence of poetry and the reason of its existence,—its development from, and operation on, the mind of man".
Shelley writes in Defence that while "ethical science arranges the elements which poetry has created", and leads to a moral civil life, poetry acts in a way that "awakens and enlarges the mind itself by rendering it the receptacle of a thousand unapprehended combinations of thought".
Sidney's influence on future writers could also be analyzed from the standpoint of his handling of the utilitarian viewpoint.
For instance, Sidney, following Aristotlewrites that praxis human action is tantamount to gnosis knowledge. Men drawn to music, astronomy, philosophy and so forth all direct themselves to "the highest end of the mistress knowledge, by the Greeks called architectonike [literally, "of or for a master builder"], which stands, as I think, in the knowledge of a man's self, in the ethic and politic consideration, with the end of well-doing, and not of well-knowing only".
Sidney's program of literary reform concerns the connection between art and virtue. One of the themes of the Apology is the insufficiency of simply presenting virtue as a precept; the poet must move men to virtuous action.
Poetry can lead to virtuous action.
Action relates to experience. From Sidney, the utilitarian view of rhetoric can be traced to Coleridge's criticism, and for instance, to the reaction to the Enlightenment. Coleridge's brief treatise On Poesy or Art sets forth a theory of imitation which bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Sidney.
The contemporary impact of Sidney's Apology is largely derivative of the humanistic precepts that inform the work, and its linkage of the rhetorical with the civic virtue of prudence.
Prudence offers a middle ground between two extremes. Prudence, as a virtue, places a greater value on praxis than gnosis. Action is thus more important than abstract knowledge.
It deals with the question of how to combine stability with innovation Sidney's influence on future critics and poets relates more closely to his view of the place of poets in society. Sidney describes poetry as creating a separate reality. The Romantic notion, as seen in Wordsworthis that poetry privileges perceptionimagination and modes of understanding.
Wordsworth seeks to go back to nature for moments recollected in tranquility. Sidney, like Shelley and Wordsworth, sees the poet as being separate from society. To Sidney the poet is not tied to any subjection. He saw art as equivalent to "skill," a profession to be learned or developed, and nature as the objective, empirical world.
The poet can invent, and thus in effect grows another nature. The poet then does not depart from external nature. His works are "imitation" or "fiction", made of the materials of nature, and are shaped by the artist's vision. This vision is one that demands the reader's awareness of the art of imitation created through the "maker," the poet.
Sidney's notion of "fore-conceit" means that a conception of the work must exist in the poet's mind before it is written. Free from the limitations of nature, and independent from nature, poetry is capable of "making things either better than Nature bringeth forth, or, quite anew, forms such as never were in Nature".
Sidney's doctrine presents the poet as creator. The poet's mediating role between two worlds — transcendent forms and historical actuality — corresponds to the Neoplatonic doctrine of emanation.
A complement to this doctrine is the concept of return or catharsiswhich finds a parallel in Sidney's contemplation of virtue, based on man's rational desire. Apology contains only elements of Neoplatonism without adhering to the full doctrine.Poetry Throughout the Ages Essays: Over , Poetry Throughout the Ages Essays, Poetry Throughout the Ages Term Papers, Poetry Throughout the Ages Research Paper, Book Reports.
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The Black Death (Plague). The metaphysical poets defined and compared their subjects through nature, philosophy, love, and musings about the hereafter – a great departure from the primarily religious poetry that had immediately followed the wane of the Elizabethan era.
We will write a custom essay sample on The Ages of Poetry specifically for you for only $ $/page. Order now This concept of wild freedom and untamable nature can be more clearly seen through the diction of the poems. Wordsworth writes, “At thorns, and brakes, and brambles, — and, in truth, / More ragged than need was!.
The Private Eye is an interdisciplinary hands-on curriculum using a jeweler's loupe and inquiry method to accelerate creativity, literacy, scientific literacy, problem-solving and . THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open.
We were too tired to talk much.