Their dispossession of the land, exposure to new diseases and involvement in violent conflict, resulted in the death of a vast number of the Aboriginal peoples.
The small percentage of Aboriginal people who did not die during these early decades of the colony, were not unaffected. The impact of the white settlers changed their lives, and the lives of future generations, forever.
It is believed that at least Aboriginal people were living in Australia at the time of Captain Cook's arrival. These people were divided into around different tribes and had hundreds of different languages.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the ancestors of the modern Indigenous people of Australia migrated to the continent more than 50 years ago. Isolated from external influences, the Aboriginal peoples developed their own way of life, in accordance with their religious and spiritual beliefs of the Dreamtime Indigenous time of creation.
Despite knowing of the existence of these peoples, the British considered the Australian continent to be a terra nullius under English law. Terra nullius is a Latin term meaning 'land belonging to no one.
See image 1 Dispossession Not long after the First Fleet arrived in New South Wales, colonial governments began to grant, lease and sell land to white settlers. As the prosperity of the colonial wool industry increased, more settlers arrived in the colony to stake their claims on grazing land from which they could amass their own fortunes.
The diminishing availability of suitable land resulted in a number of expeditions to search for more fertile grazing land. New South Wales Governor Darling attempted to curb the spread of settlement in the colony. Refer to Topic 1: Mass migration, Chapter 3: The life of the squatters. His efforts, however, were more to ensure that the settlers could still be controlled by colonial law enforcement, than out of concern for the original, Indigenous inhabitants of the land.
As squatters began to claim unoccupied land outside the boundaries set by Governor Darling, they began to encroach more and more on Indigenous sacred sites, hunting grounds and food supplies.
The settlers completely ignored the deep spiritual connections the Aboriginal peoples had with the land. They believed that the Aboriginal peoples were happy to move on to new land, due to the nomadic moving from place to place, without a fixed home nature of the Indigenous lifestyle.
The Indigenous peoples, however, always returned to the land after it had been given time to replenish itself. See image 2 The dispossession of Aboriginal peoples from their land resulted in a drastic decline in their population. While many Aboriginal people were killed in violent clashes over the rights to settle on the land, a vast number also died from malnourishment.
Since they were unable to access clean water or an adequate and nutritious supply of food, this made them more susceptible to fatal diseases.
The repercussions of Aboriginal dispossession continued for generations.Tlingit people are grouped and divided into units called kwan.
Some anthropological accounts estimate that 15 to 20 kwan existed at the time of European contact. A kwan was a group of people who lived in a mutual area, shared residence, intermarried, and lived in peace.
Given the common narrative of Europeans bringing destructive microbes, it is perhaps surprising that Columbus’s first voyage did not result in the transmission of epidemic disease to Caribbean Indians, but, of course, groups of Europeans who encountered Indians did not always include people .
The First Nations knew about Europeans, however, before they laid eyes on them. Trade goods appeared before the Europeans’ arrival, and the First Nations were at least somewhat familiar with rifles, alcohol, metal goods, and European foods.
The Indian (First Nation) residential schools were primarily active following the passage of the Indian Act in , until , and were designed to remove children from the influence of their families and culture, and assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's existence, about 30% of native children, or roughly ,, were placed in residential schools nationally; at .
In Canada, the First Nations (French: Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit. The Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans.
Smallpox is a viral infection which usually enters the body through the nose or throat. From here the virus travels to the lungs, where it multiplies and spreads to the lymphatic system.