Historical Overviews of The Black Arts Movement Kaluma ya Salaam B oth inherently and overtly political in content, the Black Arts movement was the only American literary movement to advance "social engagement" as a sine qua non of its aesthetic. The movement broke from the immediate past of protest and petition civil rights literature and dashed forward toward an alternative that initially seemed unthinkable and unobtainable: Quickly adopted in the North, Black Power was associated with a militant advocacy of armed self-defense, separation from "racist American domination," and pride in and assertion of the goodness and beauty of Blackness.
The history of American literature stretches across more than years. It can be divided into five major periods, each of which has unique characteristics, notable authors, and representative works.
The Colonial and Early National Period 17th century to The first European settlers of North America wrote about their experiences starting in the s. This was the earliest American literature: In its earliest days, during the s, American literature consisted mostly of practical nonfiction written by British settlers who populated the colonies that would become the United States.
John Smith wrote histories of Virginia based on his experiences as an English explorer and a president of the Jamestown Colony. These histories, published in andare among the earliest works of American literature. Nathaniel Ward and John Winthrop wrote books on religion, a topic of central concern in colonial America.
American poetry and fiction were largely modeled on what was being published overseas in Great Britain, and much of what American readers consumed also came from Great Britain. Philip Freneau was another notable poet of the era.
By the first decades of the 19th century, a truly American literature began to emerge. Though still derived from British literary tradition, the short stories and novels published from through the s began to depict American society and explore the American landscape in an unprecedented manner.
James Fenimore Cooper wrote novels of adventure about the frontiersman Natty Bumppo. These novels, called the Leatherstocking Tales —41depict his experiences in the American wilderness in both realistic and highly romanticized ways. It also values the wildness of nature over human-made order.
Romanticism as a worldview took hold in western Europe in the late 18th century, and American writers embraced it in the early 19th century. Edgar Allan Poe most vividly depicted, and inhabited, the role of the Romantic individual—a genius, often tormented and always struggling against convention—during the s and up to his mysterious death in Its eeriness is intensified by its meter and rhyme scheme.
In New England, several different groups of writers and thinkers emerged aftereach exploring the experiences of individuals in different segments of American society. James Russell Lowell was among those who used humor and dialect in verse and prose to depict everyday life in the Northeast.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Oliver Wendell Holmes were the most prominent of the upper-class Brahminswho filtered their depiction of America through European models and sensibilities.
The Transcendentalists developed an elaborate philosophy that saw in all of creation a unified whole. Margaret Fuller was editor of The Dial, an important Transcendentalist magazine.
Three men— Nathaniel HawthorneHerman Melvilleand Walt Whitman —began publishing novels, short stories, and poetry during the Romantic period that became some of the most-enduring works of American literature.
In the s he crossed paths with the Transcendentalists before he started writing his two most significant novels—The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gables Walt Whitman wrote poetry that described his home, New York City. He refused the traditional constraints of rhyme and meter in favor of free verse in Leaves of Grassand his frankness in subject matter and tone repelled some critics.
But the book, which went through many subsequent editionsbecame a landmark in American poetry, and it epitomized the ethos of the Romantic period. During the s, as the United States headed toward civil war, more and more stories by and about enslaved and free African Americans were written.
William Wells Brown published what is considered the first black American novel, Clotel, in He also wrote the first African American play to be published, The Escape Wilson became the first black women to publish fiction in the United States.
Emily Dickinson lived a life quite unlike other writers of the Romantic period: They are sharp-edged and emotionally intense. This was the essence of realism.
Naturalism was an intensified form of realism. Samuel Clemens was a typesetter, a journalist, a riverboat captain, and an itinerant laborer before he became, in at age 27, Mark Twain. He first used that name while reporting on politics in the Nevada Territory.
Twain deployed this combination of humor and realism throughout his writing. Some of his notable works include Major novels: Theodore Dreiser was foremost among American writers who embraced naturalism. His Sister Carrie is the most important American naturalist novel.
Henry James shared the view of the realists and naturalists that literature ought to present reality, but his writing style and use of literary form sought to also create an aesthetic experience, not simply document truth.
He was preoccupied with the clash in values between the United States and Europe.Start studying African American Literature. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. One of the most famous black American Renaissance poets.
Phillis Wheatley. Physically frail. Claude McKay. Argument . Most of the essays you write about literature are expository—that is, you write to give information to readers. For example, you might discuss the rhyme or me- story “Big Black Good Man” indicates that Jim was fully aware all along of Olaf’s FPO.
Chapter 5 • Writing Literary Arguments argument. The term was created in by a group of black scholars who disliked the negative connotations of terms like 'Nonstandard Negro English' that had been coined in the s when the first modern large-scale linguistic studies of African American speech-communities began.
The Academy of American Poets is the largest membership-based nonprofit organization fostering an appreciation for contemporary poetry and supporting American poets.
For over three generations, the Academy has connected millions of people to great poetry through programs such as National Poetry. A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement - The Academy of American Poets is the largest membership-based nonprofit organization fostering an appreciation for contemporary poetry and supporting American poets.
The history of American literature can be divided into five periods: Colonial and Early National, Romantic, Realism and Naturalism, Modernist, and Contemporary. Each has its own unique characteristics, notable authors, and representative works.