An analysis of the posibilities of plant systems through biotechnology

E F Figura 4.

An analysis of the posibilities of plant systems through biotechnology

The effect of nutrient supplies on the nutritional status of fibre hemp was estimated by leaf analysis in a long-term field fertilisation experiment at four NPK levels on chernozem meadow soil in Szarvas, Hungary in good water supplies and dry. The optimum time for the diagnostic analysis of fibre hemp was found to be late May or early June, when plants in the 5—7-leaf stage are 70— cm in height, with a biomass of 2—5 t ha —1 dry matter, depending on water and nutrient supplies, variety and production condition.

The low, satisfactory and high values for the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu reported in the paper could be used to elaborate a fertiliser recommendation system for hemp. The following N fertiliser rates were applied: The protein and oil contents and the amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the maize grain yield were analysed between and The protein content of the maize kernels increased by 1.

The year had a greater influence on the protein content than the N supplies. No consistent effect of N on the amino acid composition, detectable as a change in the ratio of any amino acid in the majority of experimental years, was observed.

The N supplies had no effect on the ratio of isoleucine, theonine, alanine, cysteine, glutamic acid or proline in the protein. Of the seven years investigated, the leucine ratio increased in three years, while that of lysine declined at higher N suppli levels.

In two experimental years there was a significant increase in phenylalanine, but a decrease in the glycine ratio as the result of increasing N supplies.

Arginine, methionine, valine, aspartic acid, serine acid and tyrosine exhibited significant but inconsistent increases or decreases in two or three years as a function of N supplies.

The ratio of essential amino acids exhibited a slight increase in most years up to the kgha -1 NO 3 -N supply level. The oil content and fatty acid composition of maize kernels was extremely stable, and was very little affected by the nutrient supplies or the year.

During the experimental period excessive N supplies were only found to reduce the oil content and modify the fatty acid composition on one occasion.

The first four soil types have extreme physical and chemical properties, all was natural grassland, the fifth one was a cultivated chernozem soil from a fertilization experiment, and the control and two different dosages of fertilizer treatments were used for investigation.

In order to measure the effect of relief on soil properties, two soil samples were taken from every soil type, one from a higher, one from the deeper exposure, except the calcareous chernozem. Large differences were experienced among the properties, especially in the texture, pH, humus and nutrient content.

The texture was measured from sandy loam to heavy clay; pH-values were from acidic to alkaline.

An analysis of the posibilities of plant systems through biotechnology

Microelement content generally was higher in the natural soil, than in the cultivated ones, especially the zinc and manganese content.

Regarding the microbiological properties of soils, the quantity of soil microorganisms total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi was higher in soils with native vegetation, than in the cultivated soils. Parallel with it, the measured enzymes activities — phosphatase, saccharase, urease and catalase - also were generally higher in the natural soils, than in the cultivated ones, one exception is the salt effected solonchak soil.

In contrast with it, the numbers of two important physiological groups of bacteria - cellulose decomposing and nitrifying bacteria - were higher in the cultivated soils.

When we compared the different results within one soil type, higher number of microorganisms and more intensive microbial activity was measured in the soil from higher exposure, than in soil from deeper exposure. It means that the microrelief has great importance in the occurrence and activity of living organisms of soil.

The soil properties restrict hardly the possibilities of plant production, grassland or forests could be found in those places, where some soil physical and chemical properties are extreme, but at the same time these soils have high microbiological activity. Physical and chemical features of soils, plant covering, micro- and mezorelief, occurrence of soil microorganisms, microbial activity of soils, soil enzymes.

In order to quantify fertility, major soil features were grouped into two categories: The first category includes: The second category includes levels of salinization, alkalization, carbonation, pollution and artifacts content.

The difference between the sum of notes granted to potentiating indicators and the sum of notes accorded to penalty indicators represents the value of complex indicator for assessing fertility CIF.

An analysis of the posibilities of plant systems through biotechnology

CIF values are interpreted according to a scale of values which separates soils into classes, from those with low fertility to high fertility. The calculation procedure and interpretation of CIF values for four soil types contrasting in terms of fertility level are exemplified.

Three soil types, contrasting in terms of fertility, and an urban soil were selected. For each soil type, on the genetic horizons up to a depth of 60 cm, notes for each potentiating or penalty features were calculated. By summing the potentiating notes and, eventually, subtracting the amount of penalty notes was obtained the value for complex index of fertility.

The results showed that: The relief to be characterized more easily have divided it into two areas: This paper represents an economic study of the main types of soil from the perimeter of the village Moldova Noua, Caras-Severin wheat and corn crops. Studying the economic efficiency of land is very important because according to it we can draw conclusions about the effectiveness and profitability of agricultural crops.

The main types of soils from the area studied, suitable for agricultural crops are: To do a proper economic analysis were calculated first notes of evaluation of soil for crops under study. Evaluation marks have been calculated according to the Elaboration soil studies for the two cultures under study.current high demand for rice production in Sri Lanka causes increase of paddy cultivation throughout the island.

between the complex human system and all directly implicated environmental leslutinsduphoenix.comis of pest management methods used for Rice stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) in .

plant cells, they disrupt normal metabolism and compromise the functioning of the plant’s various systems [8, 9]. A virus must be introduced into a plant cell.

Suggest Documents

Developers of foods enhanced through biotechnology are mindful of the possibility, albeit unlikely, of introducing an allergen into that food. FDA regulations require companies that use genes from a known allergenic source to assume that they will produce an allergen and to .

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS BIOTECHNOLOGY – Vol. II - Methods in Biotechnology - David A. Mitchell, Adriana Contin ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) plants and animals. These genetic engineering methods, and many other less well-publicized methods, can be seen as the “tools” of biotechnology.

Related Stories

In our analysis, we examined key influencing factors of the double burden of malnutrition through the mother- child dyad in households. Anthropometric measures were collected in mother-child dyads in a nationally representative sample. They have been used in research environments to produce chemical compounds with 3D Environmental use printing technology.

for example.[][][] 3D printing allows students to create prototypes of items without the use of expensive tooling required in subtractive methods. have gone further and sell through the online platform Threeding.

Alumni US | Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Area